General Purpose Wire Rope
The 6 x 19 classification of wire ropes includes standard 6 strand, round strand ropes with 16 through 26 wires per strand. The 6 x 36 classification of wire ropes includes standard 6 strand, round strand ropes with 27 through 49 wires per strand. Although their operating characteristics vary, all have the same weight per foot and the same nominal strength, size for size.
While the 6 x 19 ropes give primary emphasis to abrasion resistance in varying degrees, the 6 x 36 ropes are important for their fatigue resistance. This fatigue resistance is made possible by the greater number of small wires per strand.
Although there are exceptions for special applications, the constructions in 6 x 36 classification are primarily designed to be the most efficient for each rope diameter. As the rope size increases, for instance, a large number of wires can be used to achieve required fatigue resistance, and still those wires will be large enough to offer adequate resistance to abrasion.
6 x 19 classification ropes
6 x 19S (Seale)
In this construction, each strand has nine outer wires over nine smaller inner wires over one large center wire. A comparison of cross-sections shows that these outside wires are larger than those of the 6 x 25FW or 6 x 26WS. Therefore, its resistance to abrasion is increased, but its fatigue resistance is decreased. This is a good rope to withstand abrasion or crushing on the drum.
6 x 25FW (Filler Wire)
To most wire rope users, 6 x 19 means 6 x 25 filler wire. It is the most common rope in the 6 x 19 classification. This rope has a good balance between both abrasion resistance and fatigue resistance in relation to other ropes.
6 x 26WS (Warrington Seale)
This construction has better resistance to abrasion than a 6 x 25FW. It also features a compact construction with solid support for the wires; hence, it has a high resistance to crushing. Its number and relative size of the inner wires add to the stability of the strand and gives it a fatigue resistance comparable to a 6 x 25FW.
A standard 6 x 26WS construction provides the best rope for a wide range of applications. In general, we recommend the use of a 6 x 26WS in any application where a 6 x 25FW is used.
In most rope sizes, only one 6 x 36 classification rope is made. These constructions were selected to provide fatigue resistance without having wires that are too small.
The greater number of wires in the 6 x 36 classification makes these ropes more susceptible to crushing. This can be minimized, however, by specifying an Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC) and by using well-designed sheaves, grooved drums and proper operating techniques.
Rotation Resistant Ropes
Rotation-resistant ropes can frequently provide the best and most economical service in specific applications when you choose, handle and use them properly.
Contra-helically laid, rotation-resistant ropes are different from standard ropes because they're designed to reduce rope torque. Modes of failure and wear for rotation-resistant ropes can differ from those for standard rope constructions. The very nature of these ropes requires special handling, selection and usage not encountered with standard constructions. They are susceptible to kinking, crushing and unbalancing in the form of "core pops" and "birdcages" Use extreme care to avoid operational practices that can possibly lead to these conditions.
Rotation-resistant ropes should not be used with swivels that allow rope rotation -- or in single part lifts where the load can rotate. Rotation will cause a reduction in strength, unequal loading in the rope and possible rope unbalance. If any significant change in diameter is found in a short length of a rotation-resistant rope, the rope needs to be replaced.
These ropes should be replaced when you see two randomly distributed crown wire breaks in six rope diameters -- or four randomly distributed crown wire breaks in 30 rope diameters.
Because rotation-resistant ropes are special, there are separate design, maintenance, inspection and removal criteria established for them by applicable industry regulations and standards.
We recommend that rotation-resistant ropes be used with a minimum design factor of 5.0.
19 x 7 Non-Rotating
In an application where a single-part hoist rope is used to lift a free load -- or where rotation-resistant properties are essential for rope performance -- the 19 x 7 can be used. Its rotation-resistant characteristic is achieved by laying six strands around a core strand in one direction, then laying 12 strands around the first operation in the opposite direction. Thus, when the rope is in tension, opposing rotational forces are created between the inner and outer layers.
In addition, frequent and regular inspection for broken wires is critical when using this rope. Due to its design, the 19 x 7 construction has a relatively low reserve strength. This can result in short service life between the point in time when the broken wire removal criteria are met and when actual rope failure occurs.
8 x 25 Rotation Resistant
In a multi-part wire rope system where the blocks have a tendency to twist -- or for a single-part hoist line that doesn't require the degree of rotation-resistant properties found in a 19 x 7 rope -- the 8 x 25 Resistwist rope has found successful application. The rotation-resistant characteristic is achieved by laying the eight outer strands around an independent wire rope core so these strands are in the opposite direction to the lay of the core. Thus, when the rope is in tension, opposing rotational forces are created between the core and the outer strands.
Though not as rotation-resistant, the 8 x 25 Rotation Resistant rope is more stable than a 19 x 7 rope. It also has increased resistance to bending fatigue and crushing. This is achieved through the use of eight-strand construction with an independent wire rope core.
Like any application where an installation's rope type is changed, the 8 x 25 Rotation Resistant rope should be substituted only after carefully comparing specifications and strength requirements.